The U.S. codification of enemy spies is Article 106 of the . This provides a mandatory death sentence if a person captured in the act is proven to be "lurking as a spy or acting as a spy in or about any place, vessel, or aircraft, within the control or jurisdiction of any of the armed forces, or in or about any shipyard, any manufacturing or industrial plant, or any other place or institution engaged in work in aid of the prosecution of the war by the United States, or elsewhere".
The addresses the status of wartime spies, specifically within "Laws and Customs of War on Land" (Hague IV); October 18, 1907: CHAPTER II Spies". Article 29 states that a person is considered a spy who, acts clandestinely or on false pretenses, infiltrates enemy lines with the intention of acquiring intelligence about the enemy and communicate it to the during times of war. Soldiers who penetrates enemy lines in proper uniforms for the purpose of acquiring intelligence are not considered spies but are entitled to be treated as prisoners of war upon capture by the enemy. Article 30 states that a spy captured behind enemy lines may only be punished following a trial. However, Article 31 provides that if a spy successfully rejoined his own military and is then captured by the enemy as a lawful combatant, he cannot be punished for his previous acts of espionage and must be treated as a prisoner of war. Note that this provision does not apply to citizens who committed against their own country or co-belligerents of that country and may be captured and prosecuted at any place or any time regardless whether he rejoined the military to which he belongs or not or during or after the war.
Espionage laws are also used to prosecute non-spies. In the United States, the was used against socialist politician (at that time the act had much stricter guidelines and amongst other things banned speech against military recruiting). The law was later used to suppress publication of periodicals, for example of in . In the early 21st century, the act was used to prosecute such as , , and , as well as officials who communicated with journalists for innocuous reasons, such as .
Not only did James have the authority to govern England, but he had those important Machiavellian qualities that Henry IV, Henry V, and even Elizabeth herself, possessed. "Politically, James' conduct was eminently wise" (David Harris Willson, [London: Cape, 1966], p.75.), and we can draw on several examples during his reign in Scotland as evidence. Nothing, James would later confess, "of importance took place without his knowledge, for he had spies at the chamber doors of his councillors and was told everything that they said; and though he spent much time in hunting, he could . . . do more business in an hour than other men did in a day. . . . He had, moreover, another safeguard: had he promoted earls he could not have controlled them, but he had advanced only simple soldiers and gentlemen whom he could easily ruin if he wished." (Willson, p.48).
Could easily be adapted for A-level or other awarding bodies
The Abstract Expressionists emerged from obscurity in the late 1940s to establish New York as the centre of the art world – but some say they became pawns of US spies in the Cold War. Alastair Sooke investigates.
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Whenever she made an appearance in , she was always with Mandy, and she annoys the spies generally the same way her cousin does, as Mindy's essentially just a blonde clone of Mandy.
A selection of word documents created for the novel 'Spies' for iGCSE Cambridge syllabus. Could easily be adapted for A-level or other awarding bodies.
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During his stay with Lurgan in Chapter 9, as well as practising the observation test now known as 'Kim's game', Kim is subjected to a psychological test in which Lurgan tries, through hypnotism, to make him believe that a broken jug has reconstituted itself. (Ch.9 p.201-2) Kim resists Lurgan's attempts to manipulate his mind by silently reciting the mathematical tables he learned at school. Lurgan is impressed, saying that Kim is the first one ever to have resisted him, and Kipling seems to be showing that much as Kim found the ordered regimented thinking of white men repellent at first, the mental discipline he has absorbed from his European schooling has given him an ability to keep control of his mind in a way that would not have been possible for a native. This ability, no doubt, would be vital if he were ever captured and interrogated by enemy spies.