August Ferdinand Möbius later rewrote the Euler product formula to create a new sum. In addition to containing reciprocals of primes, Möbius’ function also contains every natural number that is the product of odd and even numbers of prime factors. The numbers left out of his series are those that divide by some prime squared. His sum, denoted by *μ(n)* is as follows:

1993 “Number in the Colonial Imagination,” Orientalism and the Post-Colonial Predicament. C.A. Breckenridge and P. van der Veer (eds.). Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Note that his terminology is concerned with direction. However, his use of lateral still implies a spatial direction. The result of the proof would suggest that +1. -1 and √-1, instead of being called positive, negative and imaginary should be called of direct, inverse and temporal unity. The symbols + and – can be defined algebraically, (add and subtract) geometrically, (left, right, up, down) and temporally, (operating in forward time, as suggested by the algebra). We switch back and forth without even thinking. This can cause confusion. The square root can also be defined algebraically,(inverse of the square) geometrically (geometric proof of Pythagorean theorem), and temporally (as described in this manuscript).

lib. xvii. When attacked , we may safely conclude, that almost all the inhabitants were present. Whoever is acquainted with the spirit of the , especially of the , will never suspect, that any of them would desert their country, when it was reduced to such extreme peril and distress. As took the town by storm, all those who bore arms were put to the sword without mercy; and they amounted only to 6000 men. Among these were some strangers and manumitted slaves. The captives, consisting of old men, women, children, and slaves, were sold, and they amounted to 30,000. We may therefore conclude that the free citizens in , of both sexes and all ages, were near 24,000; the strangers and slaves about 12,000. These last, we may observe, were somewhat fewer in proportion than at ; as is reasonable to imagine from this circumstance, that was a town of more trade to support slaves, and of more entertainment to allure strangers. It is also to be remarked, that thirty-six thousand was the whole number of people, both in the city of , and the neighbouring territory: A very moderate number, it must be confessed; and this computation, being founded on facts which appear indisputable, must have great weight in the present controversy. The above-mentioned number of too were all the inhabitants of the island, who were free, and able to bear arms.

## Imaginary numbers lets us find square roots of negative numbers.

In this section, *the potential and limitations of imaginary dialogues as a method to approach students’ mathematical thinking processes* is discussed (cf. the main question in Sect. ), refering specifically to the insights of the preceding two sections. A number of short examples are already presented here and references provided to further examples in Sect. in order to illustrate the line of argumentation.

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imagine, that the yoke was so burdensome over that part of the world? The oppression of the proconsuls was checked; and the magistracies in being all bestowed, in the several cities, by the free votes of the people, there was no necessity for the competitors to attend the emperor’s court. If great numbers went to seek their fortunes in , and advance themselves by learning or eloquence, the commodities of their native country, many of them would return with the fortunes which they had acquired, and thereby enrich the commonwealths.

had only 3000 citizens. The cities, therefore, contained often fields and gardens, together with the houses; and we cannot judge of them by the extent of their walls. contained no more than 10,000 houses; yet its walls, with the sea-coast, were above twenty miles in extent. was twenty-two miles in circumference; yet was scarcely ever spoken of by the ancients as more populous than . was a square of fifteen miles, or sixty miles in circuit; but it contained large cultivated fields and inclosures, as we learn from . Though ’s wall was fifty miles in circumference; the circuit of all the thirteen divisions of , taken apart, according to , was only about forty-three miles. When an enemy invaded the country, all the inhabitants retired within the walls of the ancient cities, with their cattle and furniture, and instruments of husbandry: and the great height, to which the

## A Guide to Isaac Asimov's Essays

In examining the mathematical definitions of the square root, one finds its inherent reverse time nature. Hamilton seemed to have intuitively understood this, as he described algebra as the science of pure time.[19] He then went on to become obsessed with quaternions which are largely constructed from imaginary numbers. Bruee [20]also eluded to the time nature of imaginary numbers. T

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