In this paper, 2013 Gunn Prize winner, Dara Marcus, considers the Canadian response to the Hai Hong situation within the historical framework of the 1976 Immigration Act and related legislation. Beginning with an account of the context in which this event took place, Ms Marcus then reviews Canada’s refugee legislation at that time, and the political, media, and public response to the Hai Hong. Lastly, she examines the event’s effect on Canada’s overall response to the Indochinese refugee issue. Dara Marcus’ winning essay can be .
Clarke’s essay, “A Black Man Talks about Race Prejudice in White Canada,” examines a key issue in 1960s Black Canadian activism–an immigration policy known as the “Domestic Scheme,”which largely limited West Indian migration to …
Recent years have featured some highly emotional confrontations within the Sierra Club. Proponents of immigration reduction have been assaulted by charges of racism. But the character assassination has taken a step in the wrong direction in an essay entitled "The Soul of Environmentalism: Rediscovering Transformational Politics in the 21st Century" was written by former Sierra Club Director Michael Dorsey and eight others as a response to the "Death of Environmentalism", written in 2004 by Michael Shellenberger and Ted Nordhaus. Environmentalism has always been diverse in the United States, says Dorsey. For example, African American abolitionists fought slavery as well as the use of arsenic in tobacco fields. Later, Cesar Chavez and Martin Luther King, Jr., were only two of thousands of people of color whose movements for justice set the template for Earth Day. The "Death of Environmentalism" authors say
"Those of us who are children of the environmental movement must never forget that we are standing on the shoulders of all those who came before us," citing John Muir and David Brower and Martin Luther King. But, Dorsey continues, many environmentalists would rather not stand on the shoulders of certain early conservation heroes. Muir developed his conservation ethic during the Civil War and the expropriation of Native American lands, the two great racial struggles of the 19th century. He pretty much ignored both of them, according to Carl Anthony, an historian and urban planner. Muir dodged the Civil War draft by going to Canada, and walked the occupied lands of the West and the South and saw nothing more sinister than "forest walls vine-draped and flowery as Eden." Before we sanctify Muir, we need to understand how his racial attitudes affected his commitments to conservation. If the environmental movement is ever going to revive, it must first confront the many ways in which the U.S. has reserved open space for the exclusive use of whites. John Muir's racism is about more than just history. It's about building a new frame for a bigger environmental movement. There are better shoulders for us to stand on. For much of American history, the values of "freedom" and "progress" have been code words for a system that profits by oppressing the poor and communities of color. U.S. rhetoric
is taking this charade to new heights globally while masking an agenda that actually celebrates authoritarian control and the decay of civic life. From
ancient Greece to the United States of 1776, he says, cultures that have theorized and celebrated "freedom" have simultaneously excluded huge swaths of their populations from any shred of it.